Interesting article on wind tunnel testing of Contador at Specialized. Big thing they found was that having his arms higher, even at the expense of body height, was faster and more power.
I've been using a bar/stem position that is higher and further forward on my bikes the last couple of decades. I got there for different reasons - trying to get a large touring frame with it's long head tube to be comfortable as a city/winter fixie. The start of my super long stems. Discovered a 180 "traditional" quill stem made that bike very rideable, better on hills, faster upwind and comfortable. All my bikes have now evolved to longer reach, less drop seat-to-bars (except Team Dumpster with it's traditional 13 stem, basically my old racing position). The old elbow to nose of saddle, fingertips about an inch behind the bars is now a couple of inches but my stems are up say 1/2 - 3/4 inch over the slammed ones I used to use with an old school 59 cm frame. (Those stems always had nicks on the underside of the necks.)